House and garden

Learning to distinguish between edible mushrooms and inedible doubles


Today, a large number of edible, as well as inedible and deadly, or poisonous, types of mushrooms are known, which can be safely called doubles due to pronounced external similarity. Almost all “silent hunt” lovers with many years of experience are well versed in mushrooms and can easily distinguish edible species. Novice mushroom pickers will help to distinguish inedible and life-threatening double mushrooms information table.

Edible Double Mushrooms

Edible species are called types of mushrooms that can be consumed for food without risk to human life and health. As a rule, they all have a sufficiently high gastronomic value and are characterized by excellent taste, as well as very good nutritional value. Of course, to know by heart all the edible varieties of mushrooms is not just difficult, but almost impossible. Edible mushrooms of the highest category and fruiting bodies of conditionally edible species have many similar external characteristics that make it possible to call them doubles.

Among other things, there is a huge number of conditionally edible species. The fruiting bodies of such varieties are categorically unsuitable for eating raw, therefore they are subjected to obligatory heat treatment before use. Depending on the species, the fruiting bodies of conditionally edible mushrooms can simply be boiled several times before the main cooking, be sure to drain the resulting mushroom broth, but there are also species that are suitable for cooking after a short soak.

How to distinguish edible from false mushrooms

In almost all types of edible mushrooms, tubes or a spongy layer are located under the hat, and when collecting lamellar varieties, attention should be paid to the frequency of the arrangement of the lamellae, the method of their attachment to the stem, the staining of spore powder, and the presence or absence of Volvo and rings that remain after maturation .

Among other things, a significant part of the tubular mushroom changes the color of the pulp on the cut or as a result of pressure, which should also be taken into account when collecting mushrooms. therefore before going to the forest, it is worth asking what color one or another edible mushroom can be painted.

Inedible Doubles

Inedible are non-toxic mushrooms, the fruiting bodies of which for certain reasons are not used for food purposes. Typically, such mushrooms have an unpleasant odor or taste, have small or unattractive and rigid fruiting bodies, or grow in specific places.

CategoryTitleFeatures
1EdibleBoletusBelongs to the flea family and has a brown hat of muted shades. Leg is not too thick, with a characteristic mesh pattern
InedibleGall mushroomHas a convex or flat-convex, smooth, dry, brownish or brownish hat with very bitter flesh
2EdiblePorciniThe color of the hat can vary depending on external conditions and growth, and varies from whitish beige to dark brown with a reddish tint
InedibleSatanic mushroomThere is a net dark red pattern on the legs and very characteristic yellow or reddish pores
3EdibleCommon chanterelleFruit body hat-legged, of different sizes, fleshy, more or less funnel-shaped, yellowish-reddish color
InedibleThe fox is falseFlat-spread or funnel-shaped, with straight thin edges, orange-ocher in color with a bright yellow center, frequent, thick, yellow-orange plates, turning brown when pressed
4EdibleRyadovkaThe surface of the cap is fibrous or scaly, with plates adhering to the leg, and a characteristic powdery aroma
InedibleWhite rowThe hat is grayish-white staining, the pulp is inedible, has a strong and unpleasant odor and a pungent, burning taste
5EdibleThe raincoat is edibleThe fruit body is covered with a characteristic white two-layer shell, which is smooth on the outside and leathery on the inside. There are small spikes on the surface
InedibleThe smelly raincoatIt differs from the edible variety by direct ocher spikes on the fruit body, whitish coloring and has a pleasant mushroom aroma
6EdibleFlywheelTubular mushroom with a convex shaped hat, fleshy, with a dry, felt surface, light brown or dark brown
InediblePepper mushroomIt differs from oils and mosses in an unpleasant taste, a red spore-bearing layer and the absence of a ring on the stem

Dangerous doubles mushrooms

Insidious and very poisonous, dangerous to humans mushrooms, similar to edible species, can not only cause great harm to health, but also cause death. Such double mushrooms have differences characteristic of the species from edible varieties, including the structural features of the hymenophore, the shape and color of the fruiting body. It makes no sense to focus on the smell of such mushrooms, since many edible species do not have a pronounced mushroom aroma, and on the contrary, poisonous counterparts can have a very pleasant and strong smell.

Features of Edible Mushrooms

CategoryTitleFeatures
1Non-toxic double mushroomRussula is green, greenfinch, field champignon.The toadstool's hat is green almost white, and a characteristic ovoid thickening is present on the leg.
Poisonous lookDeath cap
2Non-toxic double mushroomThe float is white, the mushroom umbrella is white, the champignon is coppice.A stinky fly agaric is characterized by a white hat and a white leg, with a pronounced ring.
Poisonous lookAmanita is smelly
3Non-toxic double mushroomAmanita muscariaPanther fly agaric belongs to deadly poisonous mushrooms and has a white, foul-smelling flesh.
Poisonous lookAmanita panther
4Non-toxic double mushroomRussula goldenA bright red or orange-red hat of a red fly agaric with age has white or faint yellow numerous warts
Poisonous lookAmanita muscaria
5Non-toxic double mushroomGray floatAmanita porphyry has a pungent and unpleasant odor, and eating can cause poisoning
Poisonous lookAmanita porphyry
6Non-toxic double mushroomSummer honey agaricRare, listed in the Red Book, poisonous species has a dry and transparent flesh, odorless
Poisonous lookFalse mushroom hammered.
7Non-toxic double mushroomSagThe hat has a convex or funnel-shaped hat, white or yellowish-gray, smooth, dry or slightly moist, with a pronounced shine
Poisonous lookWhitish talker

Tips & Tricks

In the process of collecting mushrooms, it is very important to strictly adhere to the following simple rules and recommendations:

  • collecting and even more eating it even after prolonged heat treatment of unfamiliar mushrooms is strictly prohibited;
  • it is impossible to collect old and insect-damaged fungi, even those belonging to edible species;
  • you can not save the collected mushrooms for a long time without processing;
  • it is impossible to collect mushrooms in large cities, as well as near highways or industrial production facilities.

When the first signs of mushroom poisoning appear, it is very important to provide the injured person with qualified medical care as soon as possible, taking them to the nearest medical facility. First, first aid should be provided, which consists in washing the stomach, using activated charcoal or another adsorbent, as well as reducing the risk of dehydration. It is important to note that success in the treatment of mushroom poisoning will directly depend on how quickly and skillfully the entire volume of medical care will be provided to the victim.

The five most poisonous mushrooms in Russia