Pigs or pigs, from lat. Paxillus, belong to the genus fungi from the family of porcini and order borotovy. Previously, this fungus was classified as conditionally edible, but numerous studies have made it possible to classify this species as poisonous and inedible mushrooms. A feature is the rather delayed effect of toxins, as well as the ability to cause great harm to the human body.
Edible or dangerous
Typically, the description of a pig varies by variety. Despite the fact that inexperienced mushroom pickers still collect this mushroom, it should be remembered that such a mushroom as a pig is thin, poisonous, and not edible, therefore, eating it can cause irreversible pathological changes in the body.
Thin boletus edulis (Paxillus involutus) belongs to the porcini fungi. Currently, this poisonous mushroom is not used for food purposes. Thin pigs are as follows:
- fruit bodies have a hat with a diameter of 15 cm or more;
- a fleshy hat, on young specimens of a slightly convex shape with wrapped felt edges;
- hat of adult specimens flat or with a funnel-shaped depression in the central part;
- the coloring of the cap is most often olive brown;
- the pulp, as a result of pressure or on a slice, is prone to darkening;
- the surface is dry, fibrous-pubescent type, but can be shiny and sticky;
- the flesh is dense, soft, pale yellow or tan, darkening at the cut, prone to worminess;
- short leg of a continuous type with a matte surface of ocher-olive or dirty yellow staining.
To date, the poisonous pig belongs to the category of poisonous mushrooms., but severe symptoms of poisoning can occur not immediately after use, but after some time, and are represented by a strong allergic reaction, indomitable vomiting, diarrhea, painful conditions in the abdomen and a significant drop in the total volume of circulating blood. Inexperienced mushroom pickers quite often confuse a thin pig with a look like a fat pig.
Description of the fungus pig
This species is popularly called the felt pig. The scientific name for the fat pig is Tapinéllaatrotomentósa. This variety of mushrooms belongs to the genus Tapinella or Tapinella and the family Tapinella or Tapinellaceae. The difference between this hat and leg mushroom is the following characteristic and description of appearance:
- the diameter of a convex or hemispherical hat is about 5-25 cm;
- the central part of the cap is depressed, and the edges are tucked and fleshy;
- the surface is characterized by velvety and staining in a rusty-brown or ocher-brown color;
- the foot is relatively high and thick; it is immersed in the soil substrate, cylindrical or expanding at the bottom of the form;
- the surface of the legs is woolly-velvety type, dark brown or almost black;
- staining of pulp can vary from whitish to ocher staining, with a characteristic darkening under the influence of air;
- the pulp is characterized by the absence of a pronounced mushroom smell, and sometimes the presence of a bitter taste.
So that the collected mushrooms do not change color during the heat treatment, it is necessary to add a small amount of salt or vinegar to the water. Among other things, in order to protect itself, it is recommended that the fruit bodies of a fat pig be soaked several times, periodically changing the water, and then boil the mushrooms and pickle.
According to some fans of quiet hunting, you can simply boil pre-cleaned and washed fruit bodies in salted water with the addition of dill and garlic, and then roll them up in sterilized jars.
Mushroom picker reviews
Experienced mushroom pickers know that a thin pig and a fat pig grow in both coniferous and deciduous forests. Reviews of mushroom pickers about pigs are mixed, and after the work on toxicity of the fruit bodies of the pig was published, the majority managed to refuse to collect such mushrooms and use them for cooking a variety of mushroom dishes.
Many lovers of quiet hunting consider pigs to be a noble, weedy mushroom that can accumulate all sorts of harmful components. It is for this reason that consumers of mushroom products are increasingly preferring mushroom fruit bodies artificially grown in greenhouses.
Features of gathering thick pig
Fat pig is usually classified as conditionally edible mushroom. Fruit bodies of Tapinéllaatrotomentósa can be used for food purposes after preliminary boiling and subsequent fryingI. Of course, a fat pig is a mushroom of poor nutritional quality and is currently ranked among fungi of unexplored toxic effects on the human body.
A scientifically substantiated fact is the presence in the fruit bodies of this type of fungus atromentin, which is a brown pigment and has pronounced antibiotic characteristics. Also, the benefit of a fat pig is characterized by the fact that the presence of a blue pigment or telephoric acid is noted in the fruit bodies, which allows the use of this mushroom to impart a bluish color to the woolen fabric.
Before frying or closing the thick pig in the jars, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the collected fruit bodies from forest debris and soil contaminants. Then, mushrooms are repeatedly washed in running water and boiled twice with the removal of mushroom broth, which should not be used for cooking.
Most often, pre-boiled mushrooms are used for home canning, as well as for preparing hot dishes, including pigs fried in sour cream sauce. It should be noted that 100 g of such a dish contains:
- proteins - a little less than 3 g or 3.6% of the daily norm;
- fats - 5.5 g or 8.6% of the daily norm;
- carbohydrates - 3.5 g or 1.5% of the daily norm;
- dietary fiber - 3 g or about 15% of the daily norm;
- sodium - a little more than 5.0 mg or about 0.4% of the daily value;
- water - 84.0 g or 3.5% of the daily norm.
The total calorie content of a properly prepared dish is about 75 kcal or a little more than 4% of the total daily intake. These indicators must be taken into account by persons prone to fullness.
Other types of pigs
At present, a description of the order of eight species is known, but in addition to the thin pig and the thick pig, the most widespread in our country are:
- alder pig or aspen, from the Latin Paxillus filamentosus, belongs to the category of rather rare species and grows in deciduous forests, under aspen or alder. A characteristic difference between this species and the thin pig is the presence of a scaly-cracking hat and pronounced yellowish-red coloration of the fruiting body. To date, the alder pig along with the thin pig is classified as poisonous mushrooms;
- ear-shaped pig or Tapinella panuoides, many mushroom pickers are known as tapinella pan-shaped. This type of pig belongs to the category of lamellar mushrooms widespread in our country with a fruit body, consisting of a fairly wide hat and a low leg. The pulp of the fruit body is fleshy, light brown or yellowish-cream staining. When dried, the flesh becomes a kind of spongy. Darkening is observed on the cut. Variety refers to poisonous mushrooms.
How to pickle a pig
The presence of different volumes of toxins in the fruit bodies of the pig provokes red blood cells to stick together, which can cause serious illnesses, and that is why it is not recommended to eat any variety of pigs.