A tubular electric heater, or in the common people TEN, is a heating element well known to most consumers, which is widely used in the production of water heaters and is necessary for heating water. Modern heating elements are a metal tube filled with a heat-conducting electrical insulator.
TENY for a water heater with a temperature regulator
Water heating heater is the main structural element, responsible for heating the water inside the boiler to certain temperature indicators. Simple and very reliable in operation, water heating elements equipped with a thermostat are designed for continuous and uninterrupted operation for several years.
Elements vary in design, installation method and material. There are also coolants with indirect and combined heating.
Purpose and principle of operation
From the point of view of structural features, the principle of operation of such elements is based on a heating wire spiral having a high resistivity. A standard nickel-chromium alloy is housed inside a tubular body. The space inside the case is filled with a dielectric filler, which is most often used magnesium oxide.
The end parts of the housing are hermetically sealed using thermoplastic or ceramic plugs. Also, inside the case, a special contact rod is placed, which during operation prevents cable burnout, while remaining cold during heating. The tube can be represented by materials such as copper, copper alloys and stainless steel.
Design of a standard TENA:
- copper, steel or brass pipe;
- wire pipe with high resistivity;
- periclase filler;
- contact rod;
- porcelain insulators;
- tubular sheath;
- temperature regulator.
The main danger to heating elements is represented by salts dissolved in water. In the process of heating the element, partial hydrolysis of salts occurs in the aqueous medium, accompanied by the formation of a precipitate on the surface of the tube, which can cause a failure of the water heater. To reduce the risk of breakage, water heaters are equipped with special magnesium anodes, which must be replaced as they are developed.
How the temperature regulator of the heating element is arranged
Types of heating elements
The heating element or heater in water heaters with a thermostat can be represented by two main types:
- wet heating element installed in models such as ATT, Electrolux EWH-Centurio and ASF;
- dry heating element used in technology under the brands Isea, AEG, Tesy and Ariston Ti Tronic-Best.
The main difference between such heaters is their location. The first option is in direct contact with water, which positively affects the heating rate. But, the negative effects of the chemical components of water cause scale and corrosion, which reduces the life of the wet heater.
The most popular water heaters with the so-called dry heating elements which are located inside a special protective casing and do not come in contact with water. Despite the fact that the heating time is longer, such equipment is much more expensive. Water heaters with dry heating elements are more durable, and self-replacement of heating elements is not difficult.
Equally popular are models based on classic tubular and stearite heating elements. A design feature is the use of a special metal spiral placed in a protective shell for heating. An additional heating dielectric element is used to protect against burnout and short circuit.
How to choose a heater for heating water
When choosing, it is recommended to pay attention to the following parameters:
- electricity consumption level;
- temperature conditions during heating;
- installation method and features.
Before purchasing, you need to carefully inspect the case and get acquainted with the technical documentation. For domestic use, water heating elements with a capacity of not more than 2.5 kW, equipped with a temperature regulator with special protection, are best suited.
Determine the power of the heater in kW can be using the following formula: 0.0011 x V x (tk - tn) / T, where
V is the volume of heated water in liters;
tк - indicators of the final water temperature;
tн - indicators of the initial water temperature;
T - time for heating water in hours.
For example, with a heating element power of 1 kW, heating ten liters of water to a boiling point will take approximately 53-55 minutes. To heat the same volume of water to a boil in ten minutes, you will need to use a heater with a power of 5.5 kW. The most popular models produced by the manufacturer Thermowatt.
How to replace the heater in boilers Ariston and Termex
In recent years, a significant part of the water heating equipment in our country is made up of Ariston and Termex models, so it is important for consumers to know the basic rules for replacing the heating elements used in such boilers.
How to check the heater
Tube for heaters is made of copper and stainless steel. Dry elements have a ceramic coating that increases their service life. The maximum heat is 75aboutC. All models are equipped with a thermostat, and some have an external temperature controller.
Instructions for repair work:
- shut off the cold water supply on the riser;
- drain the water tank by opening the tap on hot water and turning the lever on the safety valve;
- close the taps and disconnect the supply to the boiler nozzles;
- dismantle the boiler;
- unscrew the fasteners and remove the protective cover;
- disconnect the contact terminals located on the heater and the thermostat;
- unscrew the screws on the mounting of the clamping flange and remove it;
- dismantle the thermostat and heater.
Before installing a new water heating element, it will be necessary to clean the inside of the tank from scale deposits and contaminants. After installing the heating element, the heater is assembled in the reverse order.
In the production of Italian Ariston water heaters, copper alloys and a nickel-chromium spiral are used. The bent element is mounted on a brass flange that increases heat transfer. The temperature controller allows you to adjust the optimal temperature level, but not higher than 85aboutWith degrees. After reaching the required temperature indicators, automatic shutdown occurs, and after the temperature level drops by 5aboutWith the boiler starts heating.
The design feature of Ariston boilers is represented by an oval funnel-shaped flange mounted from the inside. To fix the flange to the tank body, a special mounting plate is used, which is located outside.
To remove and replace the heater, it is necessary to unscrew the nut and dismantle the bar, then push the flange and the water heating element into the tank. It is necessary to dismantle and replace the heater in an inclined positionpushing the flange into the neck. After replacement, assembly is carried out in the reverse order.
Recommendations for use
The rules for the operation of the water heater are supposed to turn off the riser to hot water, after which it is necessary to open the taps on the water heater and turn on the power supply. Turning off the boiler is turning off the power, after which you need to turn off the taps on the water heater and open the riser hot water. When swimming, water should turn on and off as needed. It is not recommended to let the water flow hot water continuously.
In case of prolonged non-use, as well as in the process of repair and any preventive maintenance related to the water supply line, it is necessary to shut off individual shut-off valves located on the cold water supply line and on the hot water outlet line, as well as be sure to turn off the water heating equipment and disconnect it from power networks.
How to clean the heater
Even with the right choice of boiler, you need to remember that during operation the equipment needs preventive measures. The first boiler prevention is carried out in about a year, which will make it possible to assess the level of destruction of the magnesium anode and contamination of the tank, as well as to clean or replace the elements if necessary.