Indoor hibiscus is one of the most common decorative cultures in our country. For many domestic amateur flower growers, this home perennial is also well-known under the name Chinese rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis).
Red, Yellow, and Pink Indoor Hibiscus: Description of Species
To date, a large number of different types of indoor hibiscus are known, which differ in appearance, as well as the timing and duration of flowering. This flowering indoor flower looks very attractive, but The following types are especially popular:
- tree shrub Hibiscus syrian grows up to two meters in height and is one and a half meters wide. The foliage is arranged alternately and in appearance resembles the three-lobed leaves of chrysanthemum. Foliage has a deep green color. The flowers are very large in size, with a diameter of up to 12 cm. Flowering occurs in the period from late June to the last decade of September;
- Variegated hibiscus or Cooper is a kind of ancestor of all modern types of decorative roses. The main difference is a different, but rather bright coloring of the foliage, which has shades of red, white and green. Coloring depends on factors such as temperature conditions, soil acidity, as well as lighting conditions. The flowers are quite large and very elegant;
- tropical Sudanese rose from the family of Malvaceae reaches a height of two meters with a width of a meter. This species belongs to the category of edible plants, and the foliage, flowers and roots of this shrub can be eaten. Sudanese rose seeds are added to the popular hibiscus tea. Decorative culture has oval foliage with serrated edges. The flowers are beautiful and very large, with a diameter of up to 20 cm.
Regardless of the species, indoor hibiscus is quite well developed and perfectly adapted both to home conditions and to growing in a greenhouse or conservatory. It should also be remembered that today is ornamental perennial plant can be represented by two varietal groups:
- Dutch hibiscus flowers are yellow or orange, and the buds are red, white, and pink. The edges of the petals can be corrugated or bordered with other stains;
- flowers of American or Florida varieties have a very unusual blue, lavender, lilac, purple, purple or brown color. Flowers can be double, simple or semi-double, with plain or striped-mottled petals.
The greatest resistance and adaptability to indoor cultivation are hibiscus Daniela Cooper, as well as red-leaved hibiscus, mix and terry.
Types of Hibiscus
Care for indoor hibiscus
Basic care for such a long-standing decorative culture as the Chinese rose is straightforward, and includes standard measures, such as watering and fertilizing, timely pruning and transplanting, as well as protection from diseases and pests.
Optimal conditions for growing
Hibiscus belongs to the category of heat-loving indoor plants, therefore, for cultivation under conditions of home floriculture, a perennial culture needs to provide a comfortable temperature regime in the range of 18-22 ° C. but need to remember that prolonged and plentiful flowering can be obtained only at a temperature of 14-16 ° C.
In summer days, it is recommended to take out a flower pot with a plant on the veranda, loggia or balcony, but with protection from drafts. It is preferable to grow a Chinese rose in the southern windows with good lighting, but on very hot and sunny days, the plant should be shaded.
Watering and feeding
The health and decorative appearance of the Chinese rose is largely dependent on timely irrigation measures and regular spraying. Water for irrigation must be defended and warmed up to room temperature. To prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture from a flower pot, it is recommended to mulch the soil with a layer of fine expanded clay or moss.
One of the most important activities when growing hibiscus is the regular spraying of the aerial parts of a decorative perennial from a spray bottle. If possible, it is recommended to install an effective humidifier in the room. When spraying, remember that water should not fall on open flowers and buds. Top dressing is carried out once every couple of months, with special fertilizers for decorative flowering crops. In winter, fertilizer must be suspended.
One of the elements of care is periodic pruning, and the correct formation of the aerial part of the decorative culture. Such an event allows you to:
- remove from the hibiscus all deformed or incorrectly growing shoots;
- get a lush aerial part formed from new, more powerful shoots;
- rejuvenate a decorative indoor plant and get rid of diseased shoots;
- improve growth processes;
- make flowering longer.
The process is not difficult even for beginner growers and is performed as follows:
- determine the size and shape of a houseplant;
- to form a tree, remove the lateral branches of the second generation and leave one or two central branches;
- shorten the crown of the plant by two or three buds;
- to form a bush form, the central branch is removed, which will allow the lateral shoots to fully develop.
Sometimes a situation arises that the aboveground part of the perennial dies. In this case, new shoots often appear from underground buds. PAfter forming trimming, supporting measures are takenaimed at removing thickening branches that grow deep into the crown or in a direction parallel to the central stem. It is also very important to prune all dying flowers.
Young plants are transplanted every year, but if necessary a couple of times a year. The dimensions of the new flower pot should each time increase by 40-50 mm in diameter. Adult specimens are transplanted every three to four years, and the topsoil in the flower pot is replaced annually. Young plants need to be replanted in the spring or in the fall, and adult specimens are recommended to be transplanted only in the spring.
Planting substrate should be loose and nutritious, with a neutral reaction. In self-production, a couple of parts of sheet soil, a couple of parts of soddy soil, a couple of parts of humus and one part of medium-grained sand with the addition of a small amount of crushed charcoal and ash are used. In the process of transplanting, you need to carefully examine the root system of the Chinese rose and if necessary, perform the treatment with a solution of "Maxim" or "Fundazole".
Reproduction of indoor hibiscus at home
Propagation of a Chinese rose can be done by cuttings and seeds. The first option of reproduction is more convenient in indoor floriculture, allowing you to quickly get a full-fledged and plentifully flowering perennial plant.
For harvesting cuttings, it is required to choose fairly young, but well-developed shoots that have a semi-lignified bark. Cutting cuttings must be done with a sharp and clean knife, cutting obliquely. Optimal cuttings are 14-16 cm long with three or four internodes. The upper part of the shoot is shortened, and the extreme pair of leaves is removed completely. It is recommended to immerse the lower part for several hours in the Epina solution. Rooting is carried out in water with the addition of activated carbon or a nutritious soil mixture.
During seed propagation, the resulting plants differ in increased resistance to various stressful conditions, but pronounced splitting of varietal characters and almost complete loss of the main varietal characteristics are often observed.
The main problems when growing
Despite the unpretentiousness of the Chinese rose, with indoor cultivation of such a perennial Some problems may occur:
- of plant parasites, the greatest danger to hibiscus is represented by aphids, thrips and spider mites, which are especially common in excessively dry air. If pests are detected, the plant is treated twice with infusion based on hot pepper with liquid soap or Actellik solution diluted at the rate of fifteen drops per liter of warm water;
- The cause of yellowing of the foliage may be chlorosis, which occurs when the content of calcium and chlorine in the irrigation water is high. Water before irrigation must be defended, and if necessary, iron chelate is added to it;
- a massive fall of the leaves of the Chinese rose is observed under the negative influence of drafts or a sharp temperature drop.
Among other things, most often, gardeners are frustrated by the lack of flowering, which may be caused by an excess of nitrogen-containing fertilizers in the soil, a lack of light or moisture, and wintering in excessively warm rooms.
How to prune hibiscus
The genus of hibiscus has about two hundred species, but it is the Chinese hibiscus that has gained the greatest popularity in home floriculture. Such a decorative perennial flowering plant is unpretentious and perfectly suitable for breeding to budding flower growers.