A properly drawn up plan for planting vegetables in the garden and a competent plan for placing crops in the country are one of the main components of spring events. When planning plantings of garden plants in a summer cottage, it is very important to take into account crop rotation or the so-called alternation of all cultivated vegetable crops.
Decorative and classic types of beds
Today in the conditions of home gardening arrangement of several types of classic ridges is practiced:
- vertical constructions allow decorating unattractive walls or fences, minimize contact of plants with soil, reduce the risk of fungal diseases and reduce the growth of weeds. The disadvantages include the limited amount of soil and the need to apply frequent top dressing and irrigation measures. Among other things, such ridges are not suitable for growing perennial crops that can freeze in the winter;
- deep designs gained particular popularity in recent years. Such a ridge is a platform of standard sizes, represented by soil dug up twice with manure or good compost to a depth of a couple of bayonet shovels. Such a bed does not require digging for three to five years, and loosening, watering, weeding and liming the earth can be from paths laid along it;
- high designs convenient from the point of view of processing crops of vegetable crops. During the arrangement, a trench 30–40 cm deep is dug up. Branches and paper, as well as vegetable waste, should be laid in the dug trench, after which layers of fertile soil are poured and lightly compacted. Framing of a high design can be performed both with wooden boards, and with slate or any other improvised material;
- warm designs a bit like high ridges. A ridge of a meter wide and arbitrary length is dug. A layer of fresh cow manure is laid on the excavated surface, after which fertile soil is poured. The surface must be spilled with plenty of warm water and covered with black polyethylene or non-woven material. Vegetables are planted in specially made slots.
Mittlider site layout
Decorative ridges are able to give the homestead originality. A striking example is an unusual form or fencing made of beautiful materials. You can make a plan of the location of such structures in online mode, using special programs. Such computer-aided drawing up of a plan-plan by virtue of not even wise experience for amateur vegetable growers.
Requirements for beds for vegetables
When planning vegetable beds, you need to remember that such structures must be sufficiently dry and even. Also, you can not allocate plots shaded by trees or buildings for garden ridges. The correct bed should be well warmed up by sunshine. Experienced gardeners recommend breaking the ridges in areas in the direction from north to south. A good result is the arrangement of ridges with low sides that prevent shedding and help retain moisture during irrigation activities.
In shallow sections of the ridge, it is recommended to break and equip directly across the slope. If there are too large slopes, it is advisable to make special terraces, which are strengthened with wooden boards, logs or sheet slate. Such planting areas can protect the soil and cultivated plants from heavy flood waters or heavy rains.
Currently very popular the following options for the location of garden ridges:
- geometric arrangement of square, rectangular or elongated ridges in parallel and perpendicular directions;
- radial arrangement in spacious areas with planting of garden crops with peculiar rays in a circle;
- angular non-standard arrangement;
- a spiral arrangement or ridges-rockeries, capable of decorating any landscape and optimally suitable for cultivating garden strawberries or other low-growing berry bushes.
The shape of the vegetable beds can be completely different. Experienced gardeners prefer to break a garden or summer cottage into fairly even, rectangular or square ridge shapes. To give the garden an original exterior, ridges of round, oval, triangular or any other shape can be performed. In any case, when planning the arrangement of ridges, it is necessary to be guided not only by desires and personal preferences, but also take into account the features of the relief.
The scheme of planting vegetables in the garden: basic rules
In the process of choosing a place and scheme for growing vegetables on a personal plot It is recommended to focus on the following rules:
- the cultivation of dill, lettuce and radish is not necessary to carry out in an ordinary way. Such garden crops are able to give a fairly high yield when planted as a sealant for other vegetables. Such a landing allows you to get an aesthetic design of the garden and significantly save the free space of the personal plot;
- beets, radishes, turnips, carrots and other root crops can be planted on the sides of ridges. Thus, it is possible to get a beautiful frame for other garden crops, without inhibiting their growth and development. In the process of designing a garden plot, crop rotation rules must be taken into account, so the same crop cannot be grown in one place for several years in a row;
- as a border design for large ridges, it is allowed to plant curly plants such as peas, beans or beans. Landing is carried out on the north side of the main vegetable crop, which will not allow curling lashes to block sunlight;
- it is best to divert individual ridges under pumpkin, squash and squash, which is due to the rapid growth of the plant and its spread over almost the entire free space.
It is also very important to observe the distance between crops in a row and the gap between rows when planting seedlings and sowing.
Mixed planting: garden planning
Crop rotation in the garden: how to plant vegetables
One of the simplest and most popular solutions for crop rotation in the conditions of home gardening, based on the division of vegetable garden crops into several main groups:
- leaf group - cabbage, leaf salads, green onions, sorrel and spinach;
- the fruit group is represented by tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, zucchini, squash, eggplant and pumpkin;
- a group of root vegetables represented by radishes, beets, carrots, radishes, turnips, potatoes, Jerusalem artichoke;
- a group of legumes represented by beans, beans, lentils, chickpeas, peas.
The correct alternation of such plants in the garden and garden plots should be as follows:
- in the first year, fruit crops are grown in the first garden, root crops in the second, legumes in the third, and leafy in the fourth;
- in the second year, the fruits are transferred to the fourth garden, root crops - to the first, legumes - to the second, leaf - to the third;
- in the third year, root crops are transferred to the fourth garden and so on.
No less popular is a crop rotation depending on the performance requirements of garden plants for soil fertility:
- high rates of exactingness are characteristic for asters, pumpkins and cabbage;
- the average degree of exactingness is typical for nightshade;
- insignificant demands are characteristic for amaranth, amaryllis and umbrella;
- legumes are capable of enriching the soil composition.
Solanaceous crops are represented by potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant and bell peppers. Umbrella or celery category includes dill, carrots and parsley. The most popular amaranth - beets and spinach. The pumpkin family is represented by cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelon and melon.
All kinds of cabbage, radish and watercress are popular cabbage or cruciferous. Beans that enrich the soil are peas and beans, and sunflower belongs to the aster family.
Even on small ridges you can get a decent yield. Proper and timely planning of planting and sowing, as well as compliance with crop rotation is a prerequisite for obtaining the highest and highest quality crops from small plots of garden and garden plots.