Phosphoric fertilizers belong to the category of mineral fertilizers. Their introduction is necessary for the proper growth and full development of plants. Phosphorus-containing complexes can be represented by different compounds that have different effects on crops.
The importance of phosphate fertilizers for plant development
Phosphorus belongs to the category of constituent components of complex protein compoundswhich are very important in the life of various garden plants, as well as decorative and fodder crops. As a result of exposure to such protein complexes, moisture consumption is saved and plant resistance to low temperature conditions is increased.
Application necessarily requires the correct determination of the rate of fertilizer application, since a deficiency or excessive application of phosphorus is harmful to vegetation.
Among other things, fundamental factors affecting the definition of the need to introduce phosphorus, the following:
- depth of incorporation of active components is important. A feature of phosphoric acid is its ability to move. The upper soil layers very often dry out quickly, so insufficiently deep application does not allow the root system of plants to fully absorb the components;
- the introduction of nitrogen-phosphorus complexes into the soil makes it possible to significantly improve its biological characteristics and physical parameters, which favorably affects growth processes and the formation of the yield of crops grown;
- phosphorus is actively involved in bacterial and colloid-chemical processes, therefore, it helps to increase the level of strength of the structural characteristics of the soil. Soils characterized by a sufficient amount of this element have a good structure and are characterized by increased activity of all biological processes.
The main phosphate fertilizers are apatite ores contained in phosphate minerals. To date, a couple of methods for the production of phosphorus-based fertilizing are used. In the first case, the manufactured complexes are completely ready for use.
The second option is characterized by the formation of intermediate products in the form of elemental phosphorus and phosphoric acid, which are used in the production of fertilizers.
Phosphoric fertilizers: application features
External signs and causes of phosphorus deficiency
Deficiency of certain elements is clearly visible. Phosphorus starvation is more difficult to notice than nitrogen, but it is quite possible to independently determine by the following, very characteristic external features:
- if there is a lack of element, the staining of leaves of garden plants and foliage of horticultural crops has too dark green or bluish staining;
- with a slight deficiency, the leaves become faded and dull;
- a pronounced lack of an element is most often accompanied not only by a change in the color intensity of leaves and petioles, but also by the appearance of a purple or sufficiently pronounced violet hue;
- with the death of leaf tissue, the appearance of dark, and sometimes black, numerous spots;
- all drying leaves have dark, almost black, staining uncharacteristic for the species and variety, and the periods of flowering and ripening of the crop are greatly inhibited;
- the first signs of phosphorus deficiency appear initially on older or lower foliage.
It should be noted that phosphorus deficiency can occur on any type of soil, but most often it is observed on too acidic soils, which are rich in high levels of mobile forms of aluminum and iron, as well as on sod-podzolic soil and red earth.
Natural methods to compensate for the lack of phosphorus in vegetable and horticultural crops
In the conditions of modern home gardening and horticulture, the sowing method of enriching the soil with phosphorus is most often used. For this purpose, ready-made types of phosphorus-containing fertilizers are used, which make soil improvement not only quick, but also as effective as possible. The elements introduced close to the seeds in a small dose enhance the initial growth and accelerate the emergence of seedlings, as well as very noticeably increase productivity. Row introduction of such components can increase resistance to the main adverse external factors.
The purpose of the main application is to eliminate phosphorus deficiency in the process of plant nutrition during the growing season. The rates of such application vary depending on the indicators of soil fertility and the botanical characteristics of the crops grown. An increased rate is required by fruit and industrial crops, an average rate is required by corn, potatoes, vegetable and feed crops.
The minimum amount is suitable for growing cereals and legumes. It is possible to increase the effectiveness of such top dressing when using elements every three to four years. Foliar top dressing has an auxiliary value and well compensates for the deficiency of the element, which was found during visual inspection of plants.
It should be noted that the atmosphere cannot be considered as a phosphorus reservoir, and the main natural source is rocks and centuries-old geological deposits. Rocks contain a mineral type of phosphorus, which from the hydrosphere during hypergenesis, settles in shallow water or makes up deep-sea silt. The element entering the soil is the remains of plant and animal origin, as well as the parent rock. An insignificant part comes with precipitation and dust, as well as in an anthropogenic way.
Types and features of the use of phosphate fertilizers
Phosphorus-containing fertilizers contribute to the formation of ovaries on fruit and berry crops, and also significantly increases the winter hardiness of plants. Such feeding complexes can be represented by different types:
- soluble compositions in the form of superphosphate are introduced into the soil in the spring and autumn, and are perfectly combined with other types of mineral fertilizers;
- sparingly soluble compositions in the form of phosphate rock and bone meal, which are introduced exclusively in the autumn period;
- insoluble compositions in the form of precipitate and tomoshlag, intended exclusively for too acidic soils and used for digging or preplanting and pre-sowing preparation of the soil. Tomshaslak can not be mixed with any ammonia fertilizer.
Simple and double superphosphate, which is produced in the form of convenient small granules that are used when necessary to enrich the soil or to produce foliar top dressing, are also widely used in home gardening. Simple or double superphosphates are recommended to be used together with humus.
Also phosphorite flour is very popular with domestic gardeners and gardenersused separately from components such as lime, calcium and wood ash. Phosphorite flour is introduced into acidic soils. In soils having a neutral and alkaline reaction, phosphorus fertilizers dissolve very poorly and are practically not absorbed.
Type of fertilizer
Simple superphosphate landing
planting fruit trees - 800-1200g per plant
planting potatoes - 6-8g per plant
Simple superphosphate for feeding
fertilizing fruit trees - 80-12g per square. meter
feed crops - 30-40g per square. meter
Double superphosphate for top dressing
fertilizing young apple trees - 60-75g per plant
fertilizing adult apple trees - 170-220g per plant
feeding of stone fruits - 50-70g per plant
feeding gooseberries and currants - 35-50g per bush
top-dressing raspberries - 20g per sq. meter.
80g per square meter
potato top dressing - 2g per well
beet top dressing - 5g per running meter
Ammonium hydrogen phosphate
for digging ridges - 20-30g per square. meter
top dressing of trees - 15-25g
planting potatoes - a teaspoon per hole
fertilizing strawberries - 5-6g per linear meter
digging greenhouse ridges - 30-40g per square. meter
10-15g per square meter
planting vegetables - 2-3 tbsp. spoons per well
dressing of fruit crops - 200g per square. meter
planting fruit crops - 50-70g per pit
planting berries - 70-110g per pit
The intensity of agricultural technology and the long-term cultivation of garden or ornamental plants in one place contribute to the depletion of the soil. Timely application of correctly selected mineral phosphorus-containing fertilizers allows you to get a high yield regardless of the type of soil.