Monks from the Middle Ages have been hardworking to grow various vegetables, aromatic and medicinal herbs on their monastery beds, and are happy to look after fruit bushes and trees. Over these long years, they have gained invaluable experience in beneficial effects on neighboring cultures. Or not beneficial.
In far America, the Indians also knew about the positive or negative influence of different crops planted on one bed: corn was planted in a row, which, standing up, protected pumpkins growing along the edge of the bed with their "transparent" foliage. The pumpkin, with its leaves, like an umbrella, shaded the soil from direct sunlight and “slowed down” the weeds, allowing delicate bean sprouts to climb the corn stalk. Beans, in gratitude for support and protection, enriched the soil with nitrogen.
In ancient Greece, the "harmful" effect of the smell of cabbage on the yield of grapes was noted. In our time, meticulous Germans found that the radish feels great between the bean bushes, you just need to plant the radish 2 weeks earlier than the bean so that it can rise and "mature" until the bean covers it with its shadow. The benefit is mutual: the radish is not wormy and is not affected by the fly, and the beans, in turn, ripen large without rotten roots.
Almost all plantings feel uncomfortable in the neighborhood of a walnut, many can simply die. Barberry and viburnum "do not like" their neighbors, if they do not belong to their species. But without the second or third bush, the barberry begins to "get bored" and does not give fruit. The cherries with blackcurrants have a difficult relationship: they mutually reject such a neighborhood.
But mountain ash, pear and raspberries are very fond of "chatting" with each other with a slight breeze, and they feel great in close proximity. The apple tree rejects the friendship of potatoes, but the dandelion growing in its trunk circles, so annoying gardeners, emits a large amount of ethylene, which the apple tree gladly uses to accelerate the ripening of fruits. Aromatic herbs (sage, parsley, valerian, etc.) work well on all root vegetables, vegetables, making them healthier and accelerating their maturation. But with each other parsley and dill refuse to be friends. Correct the situation can be onion, mixed with these herbs, it perfectly "pacifies" them.
Thus, the field of agrarian science was gradually distinguished, which studies and qualifies the interaction of plants on each other, direct or indirect, and this area is called alleopathy. Alleopathy closely monitors how this effect is carried out: through volatile substances secreted by the leaves and flowers of plants, and through roots that release a huge amount of water-soluble organic compounds into the soil.
It turns out that in order to make a garden and a vegetable garden a single "living" organism, one must correctly select "pairs" and combinations of various and diverse types of plants. If everything is done "wisely", using the advice of alleopaths, then the yield can be increased up to 2 times, without incurring special costs, either for special top dressing, or for "pickling", or in time!